COMMUNITY POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT
(A study of the Role of BPD in Subdistrict Kalawat, Regency of Minahasa, in North Sulawesi)
Dr. Marthen L. Kimbal
Political participation is a part of the democratic process in the village, which is very important in supporting the implementation of village development. A question arises then regarding what determines the variations in the political relationships between the authority of the Badan Pembangunan Desa (Village Consultative Body) and the village community, and between the village internal political structures. The purpose of this article is to examine to what extent the BPD can be perceived the central figure. A qualitative method is used to understand the role of the BPD and the how they govern the community behavior in the village (Sugiyono, 2003:18; Veeger, 2003:109). One of the preconditions for political participation is political education. Political education can be understood by the people of the village and on the other hand, to help them in the political way of thinking, feeling. The village people must be improved their critical thinking skills in order to understand the politics in the community. Overall, the village people are motivated to leave their old orientation behind in favor of a new orientation today and for the future. The result of this research shows that the political participation of the community is very important to support the role of the BPD in the development process of the village.
Keywords: political participation, education, politic democracy process, and community participation
A NATION COUNTRY INDONESIA: A CONCEPTIONAL FRAMEWORK ANALYSIS
Dr. Preysi Sherly Siby
Humans always need others. It is said that human beings are social beings. Humans live in a group that will form an organization that seeks to regulate and direct the group’s life goals. This paper starts from the smallest environment to the largest neighborhood. At first, humans live in family groups, and then they form larger groups such as tribe, society and nation. After that, they form a state as a community of their lives. The country is an organization that has the ideals of united life in certain areas and has the same government. The aim of this research to explore the concepts of nation country in Indonesia based on the ideological nationalism from the Indonesian leaders. The reason for using conceptual framework analysis, primarily to understand the meaning of an idea or concept regarding the Nation Country (Jabareen, 2009; Levering, 2002:38). The framework conceptual is not only a collection of concepts, but more to a construct in which each concept plays as an integral role (Miles and Huberman, 1994:440). The methodological assumption used in this paper basing to the conceptual framework not on variable, but on the concepts alone. Besides, the analyses not to the causalities or conflict problem in the Indonesian communities but tend to the concept’s interpretation of intention. The research method used in this paper qualitative method, on the matter to find out the general interpretations based on the field of study. The concept of a nation-state is a concept of a modern state closely bound up with nationalism. Nationalism will be described as a psychological situation in which all community through Second Youth Congress proclaimed three ideals; one motherland, one nation, and one language (see Sumpah Pemuda, 28 October 1928). The result of the research shows that basically the frameworks concepts of Indonesia as a nation country to be the principle life of the country.
Keywords: Nation-State, Indonesia, framework conceptual, Nationalism
RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE AND HARMONY IN A MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Dr. Richard A.D. Siwu
This paper discusses about multicultural society in Indonesia by focusing on the phenomenon of inter-religious relationship in the region of North Sulawesi, responding to the impact of globalization and pluralization to the religious life of the people. The main impact upwards here is the growing of fundamentalism and radicalism among adherents of religion that, somehow, created violence and conflict. The most effective way to refuse or avoid the violence and conflict created by fundamentalism and radicalism is dialogue; in the sense, either “talking with others”, that is communication; or “social interaction”, that is dialogue in action. Related to dialogue in action, it is blown up in this paper the model of inter-religious partnership dialogue in North Sulawesi which is called “Cooperation Body of Inter-religious Adherents” (Badan Kerja Sama Antar Umat Beragama) which is abbreviated BKSAUA. This inter-religious cooperation body is now hand in hand with the local government for taking care of, and protecting, the religious tolerance and harmony in avoiding violence and conflict in society.
Keywords: multicultural, tolerance, harmony, dialogue, compromise, unity.
ACCESS TO ECOLOGICAL JUSTICE FOR THE MARGINALIZED PEOPLE OF INDONESIA: IS IT A GENUINE OR PSEUDO RECOGNITION AND PROTECTION?
Prof. Dr. I Nyoman Nurjaya, SH, MH
In-fact in the sense of relationship between the two main actors namely people and the Government, there is no relationship pattern of super-ordinance and sub-ordinance, as well as none superior and inferior relationship between both of them in position of before the Constitution and the State law. The paper attempts to criticize and question whether access to ecological justice for the adat communities as clearly defined within the 1945 Constitution and natural resources laws a genuine or pseudo recognition and protection. Therefore, principles of genuine public participation and transparency become essential principles in the time of policy and decision making processes. The people should regularly be involved in the law making processes by the Government in the national level and regional level based on the structure of Government system. Space for public participation should be opened and provided within the State law in the implementation of the integrated national development especially within the natural resources management and utilization in the community level for the purpose of enhancing prosperity to the whole people of Indonesia. Consequently, large number of legal products of the State namely legislation and regulations indicated toward such like State’s policy of legal centralism in the form unification and codification and uniformity as well. This is the so called rule-centered paradigm which brings the consequence of dominating, ignoring and marginalizing the other system of living law that in the empirical legal fact put into effect and work much more effectively in the traditional adat communities. The used of the rule-centered paradigm will bring the consequence of dominating, ignoring and marginalizing the other system of living law, and in the empirical legal put into effect and much more effectively in the traditional adat communities.
Keywords: ecological justice, marginalized people, pseudo recognition and protection, Indonesian people, rule-centered paradigm
INDIAN INFLUENCE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA:
PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE
Prof. Dr. Lim Kim Hui
Southeast Asia consists of two geographical regions, namely Mainland Southeast Asia (also known as Indo-China) and Insular Southeast Asia (also known as Maritime Southeast Asia). Both regions are said to be heavily influenced directly or indirectly by large civilizations such as Indian, Chinese and European civilization, with Indian civilization being said to be the most dominant. In the words of French orientalist Georges Coedès, who is credited with rediscovering of the former kingdom of Srivijaya, Southeast Asia is basically an organization of “Indianized states of Southeast Asia” due to its Hindu and Buddhist cultural and economic influences in the past. Coedès however has been criticised for his understanding of Southeast Asian kingdoms. His idea on “indianization” has been viewed as representing the “high-culture centrism” of European imperialism. There are of course pro and con to those arguments on Indianization. This paper, however, is not a platform for this kind of debate. It merely traces the journey of Indian influence in Southeast Asia in the past, discussing the critical era of de-indianization in the present especially in the Malay World under the policy of Islamization and anticipates that history will be repeating itself and Southeast Asia will again look to India in the future as one of the important economic powers and source of knowledge.
Keywords: Indianization, Southeast Asia, cultural influences, and sanskrit influences.