CONTEMPORARY MALAYSIAN MUSLIM SCHOLARSHIP:
A Critical Assessment of Debates between Traditionalists and Progressivists
Disagreement among Muslim scholars on certain issues is not a new one. But, the state intervention in religious sphere has increasingly hampered constructive debates on Islamic thought. However, the change of political stream or so-called a political tsunami since March 2008 has opened opportunities to develop a dialogue between Islamic scholars, including between the different religious communities. Although traditional ulama still hold a key role in determining what has been regarded as normative doctrines and practices, some progressive scholars try to posit their views which are against the mainstream. They offer alternative standpoints that are more comprehensive on religious affairs in terms of social, cultural and political aspects of religion.
Keywords: Scholars Thought, Islamic Studies, Traditional, Liberal
DEVELOPMENT AND GOVERNANCE IN MULTICULTURAL COUNTRY OF INDONESIA:
Toward a Just and Equitable State Law
Prof. Dr. I Nyoman Nurjaya, SH, MH
In the development of complexity society within Nation State such functions of law then questioned whether the role of State Law could also be improved as an instrument for maintaining and strengthening social integration within multicultural Nation State? It is a fact that Indonesia is a multicultural country in term of its ethnic, religion, language, and social stratification, include the existence of multi-system of law namely State law in one side and religious law, as well as folk law or customary law (adat law/hukum adat in Indonesian terminology ) on the other side. Those are working and putting into effect simultaneously toward all members of communities in the territory of Indonesia. Since the last more than three decades the Government tended to enforce the ideology of legal centralism in improving national law development and governance. Consequently, large number of State legal products indicated toward the so called rule-centered paradigm which bring the consequence of ignoring and marginalizing as well as dominating the other system of living law that is adat law (folk law) in the country. This article attempts to offer the answer of the above fundamental question by employing legal anthropology approach in order to obtain another atmosphere in building a better understanding holistically regarding function and the role of the State law in multicultural Nation toward a more just and equitable objective of State law of Indonesia in particular and the other multicultural countries in the region of Asia.
Keywords: State Law, Function of Law, Religious Law, Legal Anthropology Approach
As Metaphoric’s Author
Prof. Dr. Muhammad Haji Saleh
In form Hikayat Isma Yatim is a work of mixed genres, showing various elements of fiction, poetry, song, guidebook, instruction, romance and proposals for a proper Islamic Administration of a country. It is an exemplary work of popular literature that has no desire to be pure but be of vital use and commitment, and as mixed as reality and life itself. The hero, Isma Yatim, who began as a writer and rose through the ranks to become a prime minister, Isma is reminiscent of Hang Tuah, the selfless champion of his people and their values. In its structure, statements and tone we find also the core of the concept of literature and the function of the work and its author in society. All these qualities have made the hikayat a very popular work, leaving us with many manuscripts.
Keywords: Metaphor, Hikayat Hang Tuah, Concept of Literature
A Populer Nusantara Hero in Europe
Profesor Dato’ Dr. Md. Salleh Yaapar
It is rarely known that Nusantara or the Malay world has interesting materials that could inspire literary works meant for European or western audience. Only once a while one is reminded of this, thanks to works such as Lord Jim by Joseph Conrad, or Malaisie by Henri Fauconnier, and Befehl des Radscha: Abenteuer in Malaya by Herbert Kranz. However, these works mainly present the people, lands, and seas of Nusantara as cultural and natural backgrounds to their respective stories. This essay focuses on a Nusantara warrior around whom a circle of novels have been created in Europe and meant for European audience. The warrior is Sandokan of Sabah, Borneo, and the novelist is Emilio Salgari of Italy. Salgari has never set foot on Malay lands while Sandokan is not popularly known in local history. But, the Italian writer has managed to create a stimulating story of freedom struggle, adventure, and romance around the personality of the native hero. The novel started as La Tigre della Malesia, a serial in an Italian newspaper between 1883 and 1884. In 1900 it was published in book form. Its popularity soon resulted in Salgari producing a ciclo comprizing of eleven titles in all. Considered as exotic or action adventure, La Tigre della Malesia, has been translated into various European languages. It has also been adapted into film in the U.S.A. and Italy featuring movie legends such as Steve Reeves and Kabir Bedi. This essay argues that more than exotic or action adventure, the story of Sandokan involves a discourse of power. It raises questions regarding values of freedom and domination.
Keywords: Nusantara Hero, Western Audience, Sandokan Story, Discourse of Power