THE IMPACT OF THE MULTIPLE DISCOURSES ON MINAHASAN WOMEN AS COMPETITORS EMANCIPATION
Prof. Dr. Margaretha Liwoso, MS
Basically all over the world humans have the same rights, the right to live a life; free from violence and slavery; the right to education, the right to a fair and equal wage; the right to own property; the right to express oneself; and have the freedom to choose without discrimination (UN Women Australia, 2019). However, in reality around the world there are still women who experience human rights violations, and women’s rights are not always a priority. In fact, according to Ross (UN Women, 2009, 2021), “many Human Rights advocates still do not see women’s rights as human rights”. The aims of this article reveal how Minahasan women can emerge as competitors in anticipating patriarchal ideology which sometimes subordinates and even harms women. The use of discourse analysis in this article is intended to reveal the correlation between the Traditional, Colonial, Old Order, and New Order discourses that influenced the gender equality of Minahasa women, and tracing it in various lives in Minahasa, North Sulawesi. The implication of this article shows that through the multiple discourses, the women in Minahasa more strong compared to the other women in Indonesia to overcome the patriarchal ideology problem in the community.
Keywords: Human Rights, Multiple Discourses, Patriarchal Ideology, Minahasan Women
IDEOLOGY OF THE STATE IN CONTROLLING AND MANAGING NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCES: ITS IMPLICATION TO NATIONAL LAW DEVELOPMENT
Prof. Dr. I Nyoman Nurjaya, SH, MH
The essence of the human environment and natural resources has been actually the essence of human life. It refers to the air, water, land, forest, river, lake, coast, sea, oil and gas, mining and mineral, flora and fauna (biological diversity) and everything within the earth and natural resources contained therein. It is, therefore, human environment defined as a unity of the spatial entity with all objects, potentials, conditions and living organisms, including man and his behavior, which influence the continuance of the life and welfare of human being and other living organisms. Human environment is naturally a system of life comprising the organic natural environment, inorganic natural environment, social environment, and the man-made environment, which influence the continuity of life and the welfare of human being and other living organism.
In the last more four decades, human environment and natural resources law is a subject that has attracted a great deal of attention among academics and scholars, nongovernment organisations, government and law enforcement officials. This is consistent with the escalating natural environmental and resources problems that has been facing by both developed and under developing countries in all over the world, and in the country of Indonesia in particular. The paper attempt to outline ideology of the State in controlling and managing natural environment and resources that defined within the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia, and global principles that should be refered to the development of human environment and natural resources laws in the country.
Keywords: State Ideology, Controlling and Managing, Law Development
SITOR SITUMORANG EARLY DRAMA “PULO BATU”
(Role, Nature and Human: Intertexts and Deciphering)
Prof. Dr. Rainer Carle
Written in Indonesian, the drama uses the techniques of anachronism and abstraction via ciphers, among other things to obscure historical rifts in the family of the Batak national hero Si Singamangaraja XII and the Situmorang (Harianboho) family, which is traditionally associated with her as a bride-to-be. This article aims to deconstruct the underlying intention in said drama using the drama text Pulo Batu. Drama by the grandson of national hero Raja Si Singamangaraja XII, which premiered in Jakarta in 1981 in the Toba Batak language. This article is understood as a contribution to the discussion of contemporary Indonesian literature in its regional subtlety and its literary processes).
Keywords: Indonesian Drama, Inter-textual Approach, Toba-Batak Language
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